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22. Association of Positive, Negative, and Disorganized Schizotypy Dimensions with Multiple Measures of Openness to Experience
The underlying vulnerability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is expressed across a continuum of clinical and subclinical symptoms and impairment known as schizotypy. Models of normal personality provide a useful framework for examining the multidimensional structure of schizotypy. However, the relationship of schizotypy with the personality dimension of openness to experience has been largely limited studies using the Five-Factor Model, which may not adequately capture deviantly high openness. Therefore, this study examined the relationship of positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy with multiple measures of openness that capture adaptive and maladaptive aspects of the construct. MTurk and university participants (n=1,281) completed the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and five measures of openness. As hypothesized, positive schizotypy was associated with elevated openness, whereas negative schizotypy was inversely associated with openness. Disorganized schizotypy was generally unassociated with openness, with the exception of oddness and fantasy. Factor analysis revealed four factors underlying the openness measures: creativity/aesthetics, ideas, oddity, and non-traditionalism. Positive schizotypy was associated with each factor (albeit inversely with non-traditionalism), negative schizotypy was inversely associated with creativity/aesthetics, and disorganized schizotypy was associated with oddity. These results support the construct validity of the MSS and highlight the importance of evaluating both adaptive and maladaptive openness in schizotypy.