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75. A Bifactor Model of Temperamental Negative Emotionality and Cognitive Vulnerabilities: Common and Specific Dimensions and Links to Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence
Negative emotionality (NE) and multiple cognitive vulnerabilities [negative inferential style (NIS), rumination (brooding), self-criticism, dependency, dysfunctional attitudes] contribute to internalizing outcomes. This study evaluated two plausible models to organize NE and multiple cognitive vulnerabilities—a correlated factors and a bifactor model. The bifactor model included a broader risk dimension (general vulnerability factor; GVF) and several unique dimensions. Validity of the best-fitting model was investigated via the longitudinal prediction of depression and anxiety symptoms 1.5 years later, and onsets of depression and anxiety diagnoses over 1.5 years. A community youth sample (Mage=13.58 years old, SD=2.37; N=571; 55% female) reported on NE, cognitive risks, and internalizing symptoms. Youth and a caregiver completed diagnostic interviews. The correlated factors (CFI=.91, SRMR=.06, AIC=18921.40) and bifactor model (CFI=.94, SRMR=.04, AIC= 18734.93) demonstrated good fit; however, a bifactor model fit best (Δ AIC=186.47). The bifactor model had a GVF, and unique dimensions for common cognitive risk, NIS, brooding, and NE. The GVF associated with symptoms of depression (β=.58) and anxiety (β=.56) and onsets of depression (OR=1.81) and anxiety (OR=2.23) (p’s<.01). Results suggest that NE and cognitive risks have both overlapping and unique components. The GVF represents a broader risk dimension that could be an important intervention target.