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Validation of ICD-11 Personality Disorder Trait Qualifiers in a Psychiatric Sample
After decades of pointed criticism from the scientific community, the personality disorder (PD) diagnostic landscape is finally shifting toward a dimensional approach. The ICD-11 characterizes PD using an overall impairment severity dimension, as well as five trait domain qualifiers (Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankastia) to articulate manifestation. Recent research has indicated that trait facet scales from the already well-established Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) can be used to index these five broad domains with promising construct validity (e.g., Bach et al., 2017, 2018). The goal of the current study was to validate the PID-5 algorithms for the five ICD-11 trait domains with some adjustments based on the updated ICD-11 text. To this end, we used 343 psychiatric outpatients from a large Canadian metropolitan area, who had completed the PID-5, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders – Personality Questionnaire, the MMPI-2-RF Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales, and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. The five-factor structure of the ICD-11 domains was upheld, as expected, and associations with external trait domain measures from the Five Factor Model and PSY-5 (rs = .49 - .85; mdn. r = .61) as well as traditional PD symptom counts adhered to a conceptually expected pattern.